14 Dec The Koreans of Kazakhstan
Sung-ok was deported from Vladivostok at the age of 13 and lost her parents soon after. She recalls that while living in the holes that Kazakhs helped them dig, up to five people per dugout could die overnight due to the cold weather, illness, or starvation. She was later hosted by a Kazakh family. Many Kazakhs gave Koreans shelter, developing a close relationship that is still appreciated today.